Automatic Door Operator

Automatic Door Operator
Automatic Door Operator Types

There are 3 basic types of swing door operators:

1.Full Energy – It opens and closes the door at full speed.
2.Low Energy – It opens and closes the door at reduced speed to limit the of the moving door to levels deemed safe for disabled users.

3.Power Assist – This is a version of the low-energy operator. It doesn't open the door; instead, it lets the user open the door manually at a reduced force, compared to opening against a standard door closer. It closes the door with the same speed limitations as a low-energy operator.

Automatic Door Operator Triggering

door operator may be triggered in various ways:

1.Approach sensor (such as a radar sensor) – the door opens when a user approaches it.
2.Pushbutton – the door opens when a user presses a button.
3.Push-&-go – the door opens fully when the user begins opening it.
4.Access control – the door opens when the an access control system determines the user is authorized to go through.
A trigger from any of the above requests that the door be opened (or reopened if it was closing). The operator will heed hat requests only after it is able to do so safely for any other users in the area.

Automatic Door Operator Internal technologies

Operators are powered by an electric motor. They differ in how they use the motor's energy to open the door.

Disengaging, closer-based, push-mount, electro-mechanical operator. View from above. Shades of blue: standard door closer. Shades of red: opener gears. Gold: motor.
Operators use various internal technologies.
1.Some are built on top of a standard door closer. To open the door, the operator forces the closer in the opening direction. Then, the closer closes the door. The user may open the door manually, using just the door closer. In case of power failure while the door is open, the closer itself closes the door.
2.Some are built without a door closer. The motor opens and closes the door through reducing gears. The operator may or may not include a return spring to close the door in case of power failure while the door is open.
Operators are often categorized by the means by which the motor's energy is applied.
1.Electromechanical – the motor uses purely mechanical means to open the door: gears, cams, levers and such. This is the preferred type in the US.
2.Electro-hydraulic – the motor drives a hydraulic pump, which pressurizes the oil in a door closer, which in turn turns the door closer and opens the door. This is the preferred type in Europe. (In the US it has a reputation of being prone to oil leaks.)
3.Electro-pneumatic – the motor drives an air compressor and may be located away from the door. The air pressure is used to drive the operator above the door. This type is not common, and noise can be a factor if compressor is located close to a door. Typically, the compressor can be located up to 200 feet away ensuring that noise is not a factor. The advantages of a pneumatic system is that there are no moving parts. No motors or gears to wear out. A typical life expectancy of a pneaumtic system is 10–15 years except the compressor. Best application of a pneumatic system is in a residential environment where usage is limited to 30–40 times a day.
Of the electromechanical types, two approaches are used:
1.Disengaging – the motor driven mechanism (the opener portion) is not joined to the closer, but only engages the closer when it is needed to open the door. When opening the door manually, the opener portion is still, so the opening is smooth and quiet.
2.Permanently engaged – the motor driven mechanism (the opener portion) is always joined to the closer (if present) and to the door. When opening the door manually, the user is also driving the opener portion, so the opening is rough and noisy.
Electro-hydraulic types are inherently quiet and smooth during manual opening, as the motor and pump are off.

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